By René Feldvoß

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2011 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Weltgeschichte - Frühgeschichte, Antike, Universität Hamburg (Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften), Sprache: Deutsch, summary: Die Zivilverwaltung der Germanischen Provinzen zur Zeit des Römischen Kaiserreiches unterschied sich im Wesentlichen nicht von der der übrigen Provinzen. Hier wie Dort verwaltete ein Statthalter von einer Verwaltungszentrale, bzw. einer Hauptstadt, aus die ihm unterstellte Provinz, wobei ihn zahlreiche Beamte, mit verschiedensten Aufgabengebieten, unterstützten.
Während in Vorprovinzialer Zeit der Einfluss des Römischen Imperiums auf die Germanischen Stämme auf einzelne Personen beschränkt blieb, da die Voraussetzungen für eine Territorialherrschaft nicht gegeben waren, entwickelte sich zum Ende des 1. Jahrhunderts nach Chr. ein Provinzialkonstrukt in den Gebieten der „Germania inferior“ (dem sogenannten „Niedergermanien“) und der „Germania more desirable“ („Obergermanien“). Die Anfänglichen Bemühungen der römischen Eroberer, sich die Gebiete der linksrheinisch siedelnden Germanen anzueignen, konzentrierten sich darauf, Stammesführer für sich zu gewinnen, indem sie zum Beispiel mit römischen Bürgerrechten versehen wurden. Im Gegenzug sorgten die verbündeten Stammesfürsten für die Einhaltung und Durchsetzung der römischen Ordnung. Mit der Zeit bildete sich so eine gegenseitige Kooperation zwischen dem römischen Reich und den germanischen Stämmen heraus. Die früheste shape der Herrschaftsausübung fand hierbei durch regelmäßige und unregelmäßige Abgabenforderungen, sowie der Anforderung von Hilfstruppen aus den germanischen Stammesverbänden, seitens der Römer statt. Auch Änderungen innerhalb der politischen Führungsschicht bedurften der Zustimmung Roms. Im Gegenzug boten römische Truppen den verbündeten Germanen Schutz gegen feindlich gesonnene Stämme. Auf diese Weise gelang es den Römern mitunter nicht nur ihre Herrschaft zu festigen, sondern die germanischen Stämme durch die Bindung an Rom gegeneinander auszuspielen.
Eine besondere Rolle bei der Verwaltung der Germanischen Provinzen nahmen die Beneficiarier ein, von denen zahlreiche seize- und Weihinschriften erhalten sind. Die vielfältigen Ämter die sie innerhalb des provinzialen Verwaltungsapparates wahrnahmen, reichten von einfachen Schreibarbeiten über Kontrollfunktionen, bis hin zur Ausübung polizeiähnlicher Aufgaben.

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By Jessica H. Clark

even though loads of old paintings has been performed some time past decade on Roman triumphs, defeats and their position in Roman tradition were rather overlooked. Why should still we examine the defeats of a society that just about by no means misplaced a warfare? In Triumph in Defeat, Jessica H. Clark solutions this question through displaying what responses to defeat can let us know in regards to the Roman definition of victory. First establishing with a common dialogue of defeat and commemoration at Rome after which following the second one Punic warfare from its graduation to its afterlife in Roman historic reminiscence throughout the moment century BCE, culminating within the profession of Gaius Marius, Clark examines either the winning creation of victory narratives in the Senate and the sluggish breakdown of these narratives. the end result sheds mild at the wars of the Republic, the Romans who wrote approximately those wars, and the ways that either the occasions and their telling trained the political panorama of the Roman country. Triumph in Defeat not in simple terms fills an enormous hole within the examine of Roman army, political, and cultural lifestyles, but in addition contributes to a extra nuanced photo of Roman society, one who recognizes the level to which political discourse formed Rome's prestige as a global strength. Clark's paintings indicates how defeat formed the society whose sizeable acceptance was-and nonetheless usually is-built on its successes.

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By Roger S Bagnall

the traditional Mediterranean global dropped at us via Herodotus, Thucydides and Tacitus is one in every of politics, conflict and the facility elite of Greece and Rome. there has been one other historic international, within which usual humans made a residing, offered land, ran their cities and sued each other. this is often the area that the papyri deliver to existence; this booklet is set how they do so.

Reading Papyri, Writing historic History demonstrates how historians can prepare details from scattered and sometimes badly broken files to accumulate an image of the society, economic climate and tradition of the multicultural international of antiquity. via dialogue of up to date ancient paintings at the files, Roger Bagnall scrutinises other ways of imminent those assets. He indicates how the traditional historian can use the methodologies of anthropology, comparative background and records along extra conventional instruments to show those texts into questions and answers.

Students and academics of historic historical past will locate Reading Papyri, Writing historical History an crucial advisor to utilizing those old texts of their personal work.

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By Andreas Büter

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2004 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Weltgeschichte - Frühgeschichte, Antike, be aware: 1,3, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (Alte Geschichte), Veranstaltung: Grundzüge der griechischen Geschichte, nine Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, summary: Ethnographie, Antike, Herodot, Hakataios, Barbaren, Ethnozentrismus, Fremdenbild, Xenophobie, Fremdenangst, Oikumene, polygenetische, anthopogeographische Theorie. -

Die Ethnographie der griechischen Antike battle geprägt von grundsätzlichen Annahmen über die geographische Beschaffenheiten bestimmter Räume und deren elementaren Einflüssen auf die jeweils dort ansässige Bevölkerung. Diese auch aus heutiger Sicht nicht als grundsätzlich falsch zu bezeichnende Herangehensweise wurde jedoch aufgrund des Mangels an objektiven Untersuchungsmethoden bzw. der noch nicht vorhandenen Erkenntnis ihrer Notwendigkeit meist nur dazu benutzt, kulturelle Gegensätzlichkeiten herauszustellen. Die zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen über die Beschreibung von antiken Völkern jenseits des griechischen Kulturbereiches, geben daher zum einen meist nur die zwangsläufig subjektivmediterrane Perspektive wieder und sind zum anderen oftmals nur noch fragmentarisch erhalten.
Die Fragestellung der vorliegenden Arbeit bezieht sich im Wesentlichen auf die diesbezügliche Untersuchung der Autoren Hekataios und Herodot. Trotzdem sie nicht die ersten Geographen waren, die einen Schwerpunkt ihrer Arbeit auf den Bereich der beschreibenden und erläuternden Völkerkunde legten, hatten sie sowohl aufgrund des Umfanges ihrer Untersuchungen als auch ihrer zeitlichen Nähe zueinander eine entscheidende Auswirkung auf die antike Weltsicht. Die zeitliche Eingrenzung des im folgenden bearbeiteten Bereiches der griechischen Antike erstreckt sich neben der hauptsächlich untersuchten Lebenszeit der beiden erwähnten Autoren, in Ansätzen auch auf entsprechende Werke im Zeitraum von Hesiod bis zu Poseidonios, additionally etwa vom siebten bis ins erste Jahrhundert v. Chr. Daneben werden auch einzelne thematische Bezüge auf spätere Epochen bis in die Moderne bzw. die heutige Zeit erstellt. Außerdem werden verschiedene für den Gesamtkontext wichtige historische Gegebenheiten, wie z.B. die Perserkriege kurz erläutert. Neben der teilweise vergleichenden Darstellung von literarischer Struktur und inhaltlichen Erklärungsmustern der besagten Werke liegt dem methodischen Vorgehen dieser Arbeit ein weiterer Ansatz zugrunde, bei welchem der Ursprung und die Entwicklung bestimmter noch heute gültiger (wissenschaftlicher) Begrifflichkeiten beschrieben wird. Den inhaltlichen Schwerpunkt der thematischen Untersuchung bilden insgesamt die „Historien“ des Herodot.

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By Fred Eugene Ray Jr.

With its mix of recognized battles and storied commanders, conflict in 4th century B.C. Greece has lengthy held a fascination for army fanatics and most of the people alike. Histories, biographies, and pop culture have became the exploits of famous generals like Xenophon and Iphicrates of Athens, Epaminondas of Thebes, and the father-son workforce of Philip II and Alexander the good of Macedonia into the stuff of legend. Drawing from historical bills in addition to appropriate analogs, this certain paintings bargains meticulous reconstructions of 187 of the 4th century’s most vital land engagements, contemplating tactical styles, evolving tendencies, and the lasting influence of the era’s so much influential army minds. through keeping apart fable from truth, those recreations supply really good perception into earlier methods of struggle that proceed to steer the process strive against today.

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By Tom T. Moore

Sixty thousand years in the past, Earth had extra continents than it does at the present time, every one higher than what we now comprehend as Australia.

Why are they not there?

One of those extra continents, Atlantis, was once situated within the Atlantic Ocean among North the USA and Africa. the opposite, Lemuria, was once positioned within the Pacific Ocean. during this publication, you’ll examine all approximately those large continents and the nice civilizations who known as them home.

What did they appear like?
What used to be lifestyle like for them?
What occurred to them?

Tom asks those exciting questions and plenty of extra. The solutions published at the pages inside dig into the mysteries surrounding the continents of Atlantis and Lemuria and their eventual destructions.

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By Jorg Rupke

Was non secular perform in historic Rome cultic and opposed to person expression? Or used to be there, relatively, huge range for person initiative and creativity? Jorg Rupke, one of many world's prime gurus on Roman faith, demonstrates in his new booklet that it used to be a lived faith with person appropriations obtrusive on the middle of such rituals as praying, dedicating, making vows, and interpreting. On Roman Religion definitively dismantles past techniques that depicted spiritual perform as uniform and static. Juxtaposing very various, strategic, or even subversive different types of individuality with traditions, their normative claims, and their institutional protections, Rupke highlights the dynamic personality of Rome’s spiritual associations and traditions.

In Rupke’s view, lived historic faith is as a lot approximately diversifications or maybe outright deviance because it is ready makes an attempt and screw ups to set up or swap principles and roles and to speak them through priesthoods, practices with regards to photos or categorized as magic, and literary practices. Rupke analyzes observations of non secular event by means of modern authors together with Propertius, Ovid, and the writer of the "Shepherd of Hermas." those authors, in very alternative ways, think about person appropriation of faith between their contemporaries, and so they provide those reflections to their readership or audiences. Rupke additionally concentrates at the ways that literary texts and inscriptions knowledgeable the perform of rituals.

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By Peter Acton

Poiesis brings jointly archaeological reveals, old texts and inscriptions, fresh scholarly research, and the services of contemporary craftsmen to enquire each identified side of Athens' production actions. even though Athenians fed on nice amounts of synthetic items, and round 1/2 the citizens of classical Athens may be proven to were established for survival on production in a few shape, the topic has been nearly thoroughly missed via historians. The publication attracts at the analytical options of up to date company economics--supply and insist, festival conception, and risk-return analysis--to clarify occasions and offerings. production operations are categorised in an unique framework that explains why sure segments have been suited for the only real craftsman and others to groups of slaves, and deduces profits power dependent upon obstacles to access and aggressive differentiation. the result's a brand new and fresh perspective on how Athenian society operated that enhances political, army, and literary views, with vital and sometimes fabulous implications. between different insights the research exhibits how fragmented constructions have been primary to the workings of Athenian democracy via allowing electorate to complement their source of revenue via informal production activity.

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By E. A. Wallis Budge

This is the 1st of 3 volumes exploring one of the most notable insights into old Egypt to have come to gentle nowa days. the 1st volumes care for the Rosetta Stone, a superb archaeological discovery that has provided the root for Egyptian decipherment; the ultimate quantity explores the "Stele of Canopus", stumbled on in 1866.

The value of the Rosetta Stone lies within the 3 diversified languages which are inscribed onto it: Koine Greek, Demotic Egyptian, and, crucially, Hieroglyphic. This has facilitated an enormous bring up in our realizing of the sacred language of historic Egypt, in addition to improving our realizing of the character of kingship at a time of big cultural transformation.

First released in 1904, this reissue offers an available normal advent to this attention-grabbing topic, valuable for the novice fanatic in addition to undergraduate scholars.

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By Andrew Bell

Andrew Bell's research of the ability of status in civic groups of the traditional global demonstrates the significance of crowds' aesthetic and emotional judgement upon leaders and their bold claims for instant and lasting importance; and likewise unearths attention of this dynamic nonetheless to be precious for contemporary voters. An preliminary dialogue of the autumn of Ceausescu in 1989 activates theoretical concerns concerning the inseparability of authority and its manifestation; and scrutiny of Julius Caesar's gestures in the direction of self-definition introduces the complexity of historic political family. The simultaneous presence of either renowned affection for wondrous and kingly participants, and in addition egalitarian suspicion of it, is detected in classical Athens, the place an Alcibiades had to maneuver craftily to accomplish seen and formality pre-eminence in associating himself with age-old and Homeric types of contrast. therefore, the coming of Hellenistic kingliness, comparable to that of Demetrios Poliorcetes, upon the political level used to be neither completely cutting edge nor unattractive. but such kings really essentially articulated a brand new and grandiose majesty, as will be noticeable in parades in Egypt and Syria. With the expansion of Roman imperialism, those stylings of non-public strength had to be tailored to new realities and versions, simply as Romans of the later Republic more and more stumbled on a lot to respect and emulate in others' spectacles. hence the ebook comes again to the top of the Republic and to Cicero's struggles to keep up conventional, republican dignities in civic rite whereas a brand new Roman kingliness, completely conscious of dazzling politics, was once dawning.

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